Pete wasn't the only one in the class getting lower than expected grades on the assignments. What really threw me was that I was giving an abundance of such grades on straightforward multiple-choice tests. But it was little wonder. I noticed that during my lectures, many of the students just sat there staring at me, not even taking notes. This blew me away. It turned out that, like many aspects of school life, my students often needed to be told what to do. The educational culture they'd come from had trained them not to breathe without a specific instruction to do so, it seemed. One day, I got so irritated at this lack of note-taking that I told the class, "You'd be well advised to start taking notes, or you will fail the exam."