TITLE: Computer Science is a Liberal Art AUTHOR: Eugene Wallingford DATE: September 20, 2012 8:09 PM DESC: ----- BODY: Over the summer, I gave a talk as part of a one-day conference on the STEM disciplines for area K-12, community college, and university advisors. They were interested in, among other things, the kind of classes that CS students take at the university and the kind of jobs they get when they graduate. In the course of talking about how some of the courses our students take (say, algorithms and the theory of computing) seem rather disconnected from many of the jobs they get (say, web programmer and business analyst), I claimed that the more abstract courses prepare students to understand the parts of the computing world that never change, and the ones that do. The specific programming languages or development stack they use after they graduate to build financial reporting software may change occasionally, but the foundation they get as a CS major prepares them to understand what comes next and to adapt quickly. In this respect, I said, a university CS education is not job training. Computer Science is a liberal art. This is certainly true when you compare university CS education with what students get at a community college. Students who come out of a community college networking program often possess specific marketable skills at a level we are hard-pressed to meet in a university program. We bank our program's value on how well it prepares students for a career, in which networking infrastructure changes multiple times and our grads are asked to work at the intersection of networks and other areas of computing, some of which may not exist yet. It is also true relative to the industries they enter after graduation. A CS education provides a set of basic skills and, more important, several ways to think about problems and formulate solutions. Again, students who come out of a targeted industry or 2-year college training program in, say, web dev, often have "shovel ready" skills that are valuable in industry and thus highly marketable. We bank our program's value on how well it prepares students for a career in which ASP turns to JSP turns PHP turns to JavaScript. Our students should be prepared to ramp up quickly and have a shovel in the hands producing value soon. And, yes, students in a CS program must learn to write code. That's a basic skill. I often hear people comment that computer science programs do not prepare students well for careers in software development. I'm not sure that's true, at least at schools like mine. We can't get away with teaching all theory and abstraction; our students have to get jobs. We don't try to teach them everything they need to know to be good software developers, or even many particular somethings. That should and will come on the job. I want my students to be prepared for whatever they encounter. If their company decides to go deep with Scala, I'd like my former students to be ready to go with them. In a comment on John Cook's timely blog entry How long will there be computer science departments?, Daniel Lemire suggests that we emulate the model of medical education, in which doctors serve several years in residency, working closely with experienced doctors and learning the profession deeply. I agree. Remember, though, that aspiring doctors go to school for many years before they start residency. In school, they study biology, chemistry, anatomy, and physiology -- the basic science at the foundation of their profession. That study prepares them to understand medicine at a much deeper level than they otherwise might. That's the role CS should play for software developers. (Lemire also smartly points out that programmers have the ability to do residency almost any time they like, by joining an open source project. I love to read about how Dave Humphrey and people like him bring open-source apprenticeship directly into the undergrad CS experience and wonder how we might do something similar here.) So, my claim that Computer Science is a liberal arts program for software developers may be crazy, but it's not entirely crazy. I am willing to go even further. I think it's reasonable to consider Computer Science as part of the liberal arts for everyone. I'm certainly not the first person to say this. In 2010, Doug Baldwin and Alyce Brady wrote a guest editors' introduction to a special issue of the ACM Transactions on Computing Education called Computer Science in the Liberal Arts. In it, they say:
In late Roman and early medieval times, seven fields of study, rooted in classical Greek learning, became canonized as the "artes liberales" [Wagner 1983], a phrase denoting the knowledge and intellectual skills appropriate for citizens free from the need to labor at the behest of others. Such citizens had ample leisure time in which to pursue their own interests, but were also (ideally) civic, economic, or moral leaders of society. ... [Today] people ... are increasingly thinking in terms of the processes by which things happen and the information that describes those processes and their results -- as a computer scientist would put it, in terms of algorithms and data. This transformation is evident in the explosion of activity in computational branches of the natural and social sciences, in recent attention to "business processes," in emerging interest in "digital humanities," etc. As the transformation proceeds, an adequate education for any aspect of life demands some acquaintance with such fundamental computer science concepts as algorithms, information, and the capabilities and limitations of both.
The real value in a traditional Liberal Arts education is in helping us find better ways to live, to expose us to the best thoughts of men and women in hopes that we choose a way to live, rather than have history or accident choose a way to live for us. Computer science, like mathematics, can play a valuable role in helping students connect with their best aspirations. In this sense, I am comfortable at least entertaining the idea that CS is one of the modern liberal arts. -----