TITLE: Teaching Students to Read and Study in a New Way AUTHOR: Eugene Wallingford DATE: November 15, 2012 4:04 PM DESC: ----- BODY: Mark Guzdial's How students use an electronic book, reports on the research paper "Performance and Use Evaluation of an Electronic Book for Introductory Python Programming" [ pdf ]. In this paper, Alvarado et al. evaluate how students used the interactive textbook How to Think Like a Computer Scientist by Ranum and Miller in an intro CS course. The textbook integrates traditional text with embedded video, "active" examples using an embedded Python interpreter, and empirical examples using a code stepper a lá a debugger. The researchers were surprised to find how little some students used the book's interactive features:
One possible explanation for the less-than-anticipated use of the unique features may be student study skills. The survey results tend to suggest that students "study" by "reading". Few students mention coding or tracing programs as a way of "studying" computer science.
I am not using an interactive textbook in my course this semester, but I have encountered the implicit connection in many students' minds between studying and reading. It caught me off-guard, too. After lengthy searching and some thought, I decided to teach my sophomore-level OOP course without a required text. I gave students links to two on-line books they could use as Python references, but neither covers the programming principles and techniques that are at the heart of the course. In lieu of a traditional text, I have been giving my students notes for each session, written up carefully in a style that resembles a textbook, and source code -- lots and lots of source code. Realizing that this would be an unusual way for students to study for a CS class, at least compared to their first-year courses, I have been pretty consistent in encouraging them to work this way. Daily I suggest that they unpack the code, read it, compile it, and tinker with it. The session notes often include little exercises they can do to test or extend their understanding of a topic we have covered in class. In later sessions, I often refer back to an example or use it as the basis for something new. I figured that, without a textbook to bog them down, they would use my session notes as a map and spend most of their time in the code spelunking, learning to read and write code, and seeing the ideas we encounter in class alive in the code.
a snapshot of Pousse cells in two dimensions
Like the results reported in the Alvarado paper, my experiences have been mixed, and in many ways not what I expected. Some students read very little, and many of those who do read the lecture notes spend relatively little time playing with the code. They will spend plenty of time on our homework assignments, but little or no time on code for the purposes of studying. My data is anecdotal, based on conversations with the subset of students who visit office hours and e-mail exchanges with students who ask questions late at night. But performance on the midterm exam and some of the programming assignments are consistent with my inference. OO programs are the literature of this course. Textbooks are like commentaries and (really long) Cliff Notes. If indeed the goal is to get students to read and write code, how should we proceed? I have been imagining an even more extreme approach: A decade or so ago, I taught a course that mixed topics in user interfaces and professional ethics using a similar approach. It didn't provide magic results, but I did notice that once students got used to the unusual rhythm of the course they generally bought in to the approach. The new element here is the emphasis on code as the primary literature to read and study. Teaching a course in a way that subverts student expectations and experience creates a new pedagogical need: teaching new study skills and helping students develop new work habits. Alvarado et al. recognize that this applies to using a radically different sort of textbook, too:
Might students have learned more if we encouraged them to use codelens more? We may need to teach students new study skills to take advantage of new learning resources and opportunities. ... Another interesting step would be to add some meta-instruction. Can we teach students new study skills, to take advantage of the unique resources of the book? New media may demand a change in how students use the media.
I think those of us who teach at the university level underestimate how important meta-level instruction of this sort is to most of students. We tend to assume that students will figure it out on their own. That's a dangerous assumption to make, at least for a discipline that tends to lose too many good students on the way to graduation. -----