TITLE: Remarkable Paragraphs: "Everything Is Computation" AUTHOR: Eugene Wallingford DATE: January 28, 2016 2:56 PM DESC: ----- BODY: Edge.org's 2016 question for sophisticated minds is, What do you consider the most interesting recent [scientific] news? What makes it important? Joscha Bach's answer is: Everything is computation. Read his essay, which contains some remarkable passages.
Computation changes our idea of knowledge: instead of treating it as justified true belief, knowledge describes a local minimum in capturing regularities between observables.
Epistemology was one of my two favorite courses in grad school (cognitive psych was the other), and "justified true belief" was the starting point for many interesting ideas of what constitutes knowledge. I don't see Bach's formulation as a replacement for justified true belief as a starting point, but rather as a specification of what beliefs are most justified in a given context. Still, Bach's way of using computation in such a concrete way to define "knowledge" is marvelous.
Knowledge is almost never static, but progressing on a gradient through a state space of possible world views. We will no longer aspire to teach our children the truth, because like us, they will never stop changing their minds. We will teach them how to productively change their minds, how to explore the never ending land of insight.
Knowledge is a never-ending process of refactoring. The phrase "how to productively change their minds" reminds me of Jon Udell's recent blog post on liminal thinking at scale. From the perspective that knowledge is a function, "changing one's mind intelligently" is the dynamic computational process that keeps the mind at a local minimum.
A growing number of physicists understand that the universe is not mathematical, but computational, and physics is in the business of finding an algorithm that can reproduce our observations. The switch from uncomputable, mathematical notions (such as continuous space) makes progress possible. Climate science, molecular genetics, and AI are computational sciences. Sociology, psychology, and neuroscience are not: they still seem to be confused by the apparent dichotomy between mechanism (rigid, moving parts) and the objects of their study. They are looking for social, behavioral, chemical, neural regularities, where they should be looking for computational ones.
This is a strong claim, and one I'm sympathetic with. However, I think that the apparent distinction between the computational sciences and the non-computational ones is a matter of time, not a difference in kind. It wasn't that long ago that most physicists thought of the universe in mathematical terms, not computational ones. I suspect that with a little more time, the orientation in other disciplines will begin to shift. Neuroscience and psychology are positioned well for such a phase shift. In any case, Bach's response points our attention in a direction that has the potential to re-define every problem we try to solve. This may seem unthinkable to many, though perhaps not to computer scientists, especially those of us with an AI bent. -----