## June 17, 2020 3:53 PM

### Doing Concatenative Programming in a Spreadsheet

It's been a long time since I was excited by a new piece of software the way I was excited by Loglo, Avi Bryant's new creation. Loglo is "LOGO for the Glowforge", an experimental programming environment for creating SVG images. That's not a problem I need to solve, but the way Loglo works drew me in immediately. It consists of a stack programming language and a set of primitives for describing vector graphics, integrated into a spreadsheet interface. It's the use of a stack language to program a spreadsheet that excites me so much.

Actually, it's the reverse relationship that really excites me: using a spreadsheet to build and visualize a stack-based program. Long-time readers know that I am interested in this style of programming (see Summer of Joy for a post from last year) and sometimes introduce it in my programming languages course. Students understand small examples easily enough, but they usually find it hard to grok larger programs and to fully appreciate how typing in such a language can work. How might Loglo help?

In Loglo, a cell can refer to the values produced by other cells in the familiar spreadsheet way, with an absolute address such as "a1" or "f2". But Loglo cells have two other ways to refer to other cell's values. First, any cell can access the value produced by the cell to its left implicitly, because Loglo leaves the result of a cell's computation sitting on top of the stack. Second, a cell can access the value produced by the cell above it by using the special variable "^". These last two features strike me as a useful way for programmers to see their computations grow over time, which can be an even more powerful mode of interaction for beginners who are learning this programming style.

Stack-oriented programming of this sort is concatenative: programs are created by juxtaposing other programs, with a stack of values implicitly available to every operator. Loglo uses the stack as leverage to enable programmers to build images incrementally, cell by cell and row by row, referring to values on the stack as well as to predecessor cells. The programmer can see in a cell the value produced by a cumulative bit of code that includes new code in the cell itself. Reading Bryant's description of programming in Loglo, it's easy to see how this can be helpful when building images. I think my students might find it helpful when learning how to write concatenative programs or learning how types and programs work in a concatenative language.

For example, here is a concatenative program that works in Loglo as well as other stack-based languages such as Forth and Joy:

``` 2 3 + 5 * 2 + 6 / 3 /
```

Loglo tells us that it computes the value 1.5:

This program consists of eleven tokens, each of which is a program in its own right. More interestingly, we can partition this program into smaller units by taking any subsequences of the program:

``` 2 3 + 5 *   2 + 6 /   3 /
---------   -------   ---
```
These are the programs in cells A1, B1, and C1 of our spreadsheet. The first computes 25, the second uses that value to compute 4.5, and the third uses the 4.5 to compute 1.5. Notice that the programs in cells B1 and C1 require an extra value to do their jobs. They are like functions of one argument. Rather than pass an argument to the function, Loglo allows it to read a value from the stack, produced by the cell to its left.

By making the intermediate results visible to the programmer, this interface might help programmers better see how pieces of a concatenative program work and learn what the type of a program fragment such as 2 + 6 / (in cell B1 above) or 3 / is. Allowing locally-relative references on a new row will, as Avi points out, enable an incremental programming style in which the programmer uses a transformation computed in one cell as the source for a parameterized version of the transformation in the cell below. This can give the novice concatenative programmer an interactive experience more supportive than the usual REPL. And Loglo is a spreadsheet, so changes in one cell percolate throughout the sheet on each update!

Am I the only one who thinks this could be a really cool environment for programmers to learn and practice this style of programming?

Teaching concatenative programming isn't a primary task in my courses, so I've never taken the time to focus on a pedagogical environment for the style. I'm grateful to Avi for demonstrating a spreadsheet model for stack programs and stimulating me to think more about it.

For now, I'll play with Loglo as much as time permits and think more about its use, or use of a tool like it, in my courses. There are couple of features I'll have to get used to. For one, it seems that a cell can access only one item left on the stack by its left neighbor, which limits the kind of partial functions we can write into cells. Another is that named functions such as rotate push themselves onto the stack by default and thus require a ! to apply them, whereas operators such as + evaluate by default and thus require quotation in a {} block to defer execution. (I have an academic's fondness for overarching simplicity.) Fortunately, these are the sorts of features one gets used to whenever learning a new language. They are part of the fun.

Thinking beyond Loglo, I can imagine implementing an IDE like this for my students that provides features that Loglo's use cases don't require. For example, it would be cool to enable the programmer to ctrl-click on a cell to see the type of the program it contains, as well as an option to see the cumulative type along the row or built on a cell referenced from above. There is much fun to be had here.

To me, one sign of a really interesting project is how many tangential ideas flow out of it. For me, Loglo is teeming with ideas, and I'm not even in its target demographic. So, kudos to Avi!

Now, back to administrivia and that database course...

Posted by Eugene Wallingford | Permalink | Categories: Computing, Software Development, Teaching and Learning

## June 11, 2020 1:02 PM

### Persistence Wins, Even For Someone Like You

There's value to going into a field that you find difficult to grasp, as long as you're willing to be persistent. Even better, others can benefit from your persistence, too.

In an old essay, James Propp notes that working in a field where you lack intuition can "impart a useful freedom from prejudice". Even better...

... there's value in going into a field that you find difficult to grasp, as long as you're willing to be really persistent, because if you find a different way to think about things, something that works even for someone like you, chances are that other people will find it useful too.

This reminded me of a passage in Bob Nystroms's post about his new book, Crafting Interpreters. Nystrom took a long time to finish the book in large part because he wanted the interpreter at the end of each chapter to compile and run, while at the same time growing into the interpreter discussed in the next chapter. But that wasn't the only reason:

I made this problem harder for myself because of the meta-goal I had. One reason I didn't get into languages until later in my career was because I was intimidated by the reputation compilers have as being only for hardcore computer science wizard types. I'm a college dropout, so I felt I wasn't smart enough, or at least wasn't educated enough to hack it. Eventually I discovered that those barriers existed only in my mind and that anyone can learn this.

Some students avoid my compilers course because they assume it must be difficult, or because friends said they found it difficult. Even though they are CS majors, they think of themselves as average programmers, not "hardcore computer science wizard types". But regardless of the caliber of the student at the time they start the course, the best predictor of success in writing a working compiler is persistence. The students who plug away, working regularly throughout the two-week stages and across the entire project, are usually the ones who finish successfully.

One of my great pleasures as a prof is seeing the pride in the faces of students who demo a working compiler at the end of the semester, especially in the faces of the students who began the course concerned that they couldn't hack it.

As Propp points out in his essay, this sort of persistence can pay off for others, too. When you have to work hard to grasp an idea or to make something, you sometimes find a different way to think about things, and this can help others who are struggling. One of my jobs as a teacher is to help students understand new ideas and use new techniques. That job is usually made easier when I've had to work persistently to understand the idea myself, or to find a better way to help the students who teach me the ways in which they struggle.

In Nystrom's case, his hard work to master a field he didn't grasp immediately pays of for his readers. I've been following the growth of Crafting Interpreters over time, reading chapters in depth whenever I was able. Those chapters were uniformly easy to read, easy to follow, and entertaining. They have me thinking about ways to teach my own course differently, which is probably the highest praise I can give as a teacher. Now I need to go back and read the entire book and learn some more.

Teaching well enough that students grasp what they thought was not graspable and do what they thought was not doable is a constant goal, rarely achieved. It's always a work in progress. I have to keep plugging away.

Posted by Eugene Wallingford | Permalink | Categories: Computing, Software Development, Teaching and Learning